Vroom’s Expectancy Theory: Explained


Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, named after its creator Victor Vroom, is a psychological theory that focuses on understanding and predicting individual choices and decisions in the workplace. At its core, Vroom’s Theory seeks to explain why individuals choose to exert effort in certain situations and how they evaluate potential outcomes.

What is Vroom’s Expectancy Theory?

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory posits that an individual’s motivation at work is determined by three key factors:

  • Valence: The value they place on the reward associated with an action.
  • Expectancy: Their belief that by exerting the necessary effort, they can achieve the desired results.
  • Instrumentality: Their confidence that good results will be rewarded.

This relationship is expressed through a mathematical formula: Motivation = V x I x E.

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Vroom's Expectancy Theory: Explained

If all elements are at their highest, motivation will be maximum. However, if any element is zero, motivation will be absent.

For instance, an employee might feel they lack sufficient time to complete a task properly. Despite their effort, they believe they won’t achieve the set goals. In this case, “Expectancy” is zero, leading to no motivation even if the reward for success is attractive and guaranteed.

Vroom’s theory is also known as the Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE) theory or Expectancy theory.

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Vroom’s Theory in Detail

Let’s explore the three dimensions of the theory with definitions, practical examples, and advice for managers:

Expectancy (E)

Often translated as “expectation” or “belief,” this refers to the employee’s conviction that their effort will lead to achieving the desired performance level. Expectancy is high when there’s a clear and direct link perceived between effort and expected results, leading to increased commitment to those efforts.


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  • A salesperson believes that increasing the number of visits to potential clients will help them reach sales targets.
  • A software developer is confident that improving their skills in the technologies they use will boost their productivity, motivating them to seek further training.

How to strengthen the perception of the link between effort and success:

  • Set realistic and achievable goals: If the gap between the required effort and achieving the desired level is too large, employees might become discouraged or doubt their abilities, resulting in low expectancy.
  • Provide the means to succeed: Financial resources, training, dedicated time… equip employees with the resources they need to overcome challenges. Before setting goals, consider what resources are necessary for success.
  • Support during the effort: Implement continuous feedback to support your team members in their actions, providing additional resources as needed.

Instrumentality (I)

The third principle of Vroom’s motivational theory is the belief that successful performance, the outcome, will lead to a specific reward. This factor is maximized when employees perceive a high probability that their success will translate into a tangible gain.


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  • An employee who consistently exceeds their goals knows they will be promoted. For them, this element is maximized.
  • A temporary worker who excels in their assigned tasks is confident their contract will lead to permanent employment.

Management tips:

  • Clearly communicate expectations: Transparently communicate the criteria on which rewards are based. Everyone should understand which behaviors and results are rewarded and how these rewards are attributed.
  • Set simple and understandable criteria: Choose reward systems that are clear and easy to understand.
  • Implement tracking tools that link achievements to rewards: Integrate into performance dashboards what your employees can gain by achieving set goals.
  • Regularly evaluate and adjust: Continuously assess the effectiveness of reward systems. If necessary, review reward choices and/or adjust evaluation criteria to ensure instrumentality remains strong.

Valence (V)

This refers to the value a person places on the potential rewards resulting from their work. High valence means the employee is highly interested in the reward, significantly increasing their motivation to achieve set goals. We can also refer to this as the degree of “desirability.”

Examples of rewards:

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  • Bonus: An employee who highly values financial gains will find great valence in performance-related bonuses.
  • Professional recognition: Others are very sensitive to recognition by their peers and superiors.
  • Career opportunities: The prospect of promotion can represent a strong “Valence” for those who prioritize career progression.

Tips for choosing high-value rewards:

  • Personalize rewards: Listen to your employees, observe, and discuss to determine what each of them values, and choose levers accordingly.
  • Consider feedback: After each action, evaluate the value associated with what has been achieved.
  • Ensure balance: Position the value of rewards well in relation to the effort required. If your expectations are higher later, ensure you have the flexibility to offer rewards of greater value.
  • Be mindful of fairness: A feeling of injustice and inequity among your employees can significantly reduce valence.
  • Amplify value: Organize events to highlight successes and/or offer personalized congratulations. Even if recognition is not the main driver for some, it can be a plus.

Why Use the Principles of This Theory?

  • Formal principles: This theory offers a simple framework for managers to organize their motivational system around central principles.
  • Reward personalization: Vroom’s theory helps managers understand how to align rewards with the personal motivations of each team member.
  • Communication encouragement: The theory encourages managers to communicate and listen carefully to their employees to understand their needs, a virtuous practice.

Limitations of Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

  • Managers are not employees: It’s challenging for managers to think in the place of their team members, yet the model assumes a certain ability of managers to correctly assess behaviors and what motivates their employees.
  • Individuals don’t always act rationally: Human behavior is influenced by a multitude of psychological, emotional, and social factors that can sometimes lead to irrational decisions and attitudes.
  • Contextual influence: The theory doesn’t sufficiently consider contextual elements like the influence of the work environment, organizational culture, and interpersonal relationships on motivation. These elements can sometimes have a significant impact on motivation, even overshadowing the appeal of individual rewards.


Vroom’s Theory offers a valuable framework for understanding human motivation and behavior in the workplace. By examining the concepts of expectancy, instrumentality, and valence, organizations can design effective motivational strategies that align with employee preferences and organizational goals. However, it is crucial to acknowledge the theory’s limitations and consider alternative perspectives to develop a holistic understanding of employee motivation and behavior.


  1. Is Vroom’s Theory applicable to all types of organizations?
    • While Vroom’s Theory can be applied to various organizational contexts, its effectiveness may vary depending on factors such as organizational culture, industry, and workforce demographics.
  2. How can organizations measure expectancy, instrumentality, and valence in practice?
    • Organizations can use surveys, interviews, and performance evaluations to assess employees’ perceptions of expectancy, instrumentality, and valence in the workplace.
  3. What are some common misconceptions about Vroom’s Theory?
    • One common misconception is that Vroom’s Theory assumes individuals always make rational decisions. In reality, emotions, biases, and situational factors can influence decision-making processes.
  4. Can Vroom’s Theory be integrated with other motivational theories?
    • Yes, organizations can combine Vroom’s Theory with other motivational theories such as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs or Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory to develop comprehensive motivational strategies.
  5. How can organizations address the limitations of Vroom’s Theory?
    • Organizations can address the limitations of Vroom’s Theory by considering complementary theories, conducting empirical research, and adapting motivational strategies to fit the unique needs of their workforce.
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