Assessment Techniques and Information Needs


Valuation techniques play a crucial role in accounting by providing valuable information about an organization’s performance.

Meaning and Role of Performance Evaluation in Accounting

Performance appraisal is an essential process in accounting that involves evaluating the performance of an organization, department or individual. It plays a crucial role in assessing the achievement of objectives, whether financial or non-financial, and helps identify areas requiring improvement.

Performance appraisal enables decision-makers to make informed decisions, allocate resources efficiently and align performance with organizational goals.

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Types of Valuation Techniques

The Return on Investment (ROI):

ROI is a widely used financial valuation technique that measures the profitability of an investment relative to its cost. It assesses the effectiveness of an investment in generating returns and is expressed as a percentage.

Example : A manufacturing company invests in new machinery to improve production efficiency. By calculating the ROI of the investment, they can determine whether the returns justify the initial cost.

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Economic Value Added (EVA):

EVA is a performance measure that determines the true economic benefit generated by an organization or business unit. It takes into account both the cost of capital and net operating profit after tax.

Example : A retail chain evaluates the performance of its individual stores using EVA. This metric helps identify stores that are creating economic value and those that need improvement.

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The Balanced Scorecard:

The balanced scorecard is a comprehensive assessment technique that measures an organization’s performance from different perspectives, including financial, customer, internal processes, and learning and growth.

Example : A technology company takes the balanced scorecard approach to evaluating its performance. It examines financial indicators, customer satisfaction levels, internal process efficiency and employee development.

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Information Needs Addressed by Appraisal Techniques

  • Financial and Non-Financial Performance Evaluation: Evaluation techniques help assess both the financial and non-financial aspects of performance. They provide an overview of the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization.

Example : An educational institution uses assessment techniques to assess the academic performance of students (non-financial) as well as the financial health of the institution (financial).

  • Measuring Efficiency and Effectiveness: Evaluation techniques allow companies to measure the efficiency of their operations and the effectiveness of their strategies.

Example : A healthcare organization evaluates the performance of its medical staff to ensure effective patient care while maintaining high quality medical services.

Alignment of Organizational Goals with Performance Metrics: Assessment techniques help align individual and departmental performance with larger organizational goals and strategic objectives.

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Example : A marketing department aligns its performance metrics with the company’s goal of increasing market share and brand awareness.

Case Studies Highlighting the Application of Assessment Techniques to Drive Improvements

Manufacturing Sector : A manufacturing company uses ROI to assess the performance of different product lines. By identifying low ROI products, they either focus on optimizing those lines or decide to discontinue them to improve overall profitability.

Financial Services : A bank adopts the balanced scorecard to assess its performance in terms of customer satisfaction, employee development and efficiency of internal processes. The dashboard guides them to make targeted improvements where they are needed.

Retail Industry : A chain of retail stores uses Economic Value Added (EVA) to assess the performance of its individual stores. Stores with a positive EVA receive recognition and rewards, motivating them to continue creating value for the organization.


Using techniques such as ROI, EVA, and balanced scorecard, companies can assess financial and non-financial performance, measure effectiveness and efficiency, and align performance with strategic goals.

Case studies demonstrate how these techniques drive continuous improvement and inform decision-making to improve overall organizational performance. Performance appraisal, when used effectively, becomes an indispensable tool for driving continuous improvement and achieving lasting success.

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