Economic Value Creation: Unlocking Competitive Advantage for Sustainable Success


Understanding and harnessing the concept of economic value creation is crucial for achieving long-term success. It forms the very foundation of strategic management, providing a roadmap for organizations to navigate their way towards cost leadership or differentiation.

Economic value creation is fundamentally about maximizing the gap between the value that customers place on a product or service and the costs incurred by the firm to produce it. This simple yet powerful idea is what sets the stage for firms to gain a competitive edge, make strategic decisions, and ultimately, thrive in their respective markets.

Understanding Economic Value Creation

The Basics: Creating Value, Gaining Advantage

At its core, economic value creation is a straightforward concept. Let’s consider an example to illustrate this. Imagine a consumer who is in the market for a new laptop and has a budget of $1,200. They are considering two models: Model 1 offered by Firm A, and Model 2 offered by Firm B. Due to previous positive experiences, the consumer is already quite familiar with Firm A’s products and values their Model 1 at a reservation price of $1,000.

However, Model 2 by Firm B offers superior performance, enhanced user-friendliness, and a certain “coolness factor” that appeals to the consumer, leading them to value it at $1,200. In this scenario, Firm B has created more economic value ($1,200 – $400 = $800) compared to Firm A ($1,000 – $400 = $600). As a result, Firm B gains a competitive advantage over Firm A.

Value, Price, and Cost: The Trifecta of Economic Value

To delve deeper into the concept of economic value creation, we need to introduce three critical variables: value (V), price (P), and cost (C).

Value (V) represents the dollar amount that a consumer attaches to a good or service. It captures the consumer’s willingness to pay and is influenced by the perceived benefits that the product or service provides.

Price (P) refers to the amount that is actually charged for the product or service. This is what the consumer pays to acquire it.

Cost (C) represents the total unit cost incurred by the firm to produce the good or service. This includes all expenses related to production, such as materials, labor, and overhead.

Understanding the interplay between value, price, and cost is essential for grasping the concept of consumer surplus and producer surplus, which we will explore further in the next section.

Consumer Surplus and Producer Surplus: Sharing the Value

Consumer surplus and producer surplus are two important concepts that help explain how economic value creation is distributed between the consumer and the firm.

Consumer Surplus: This refers to the difference between the value a consumer places on a product and the price they actually pay. Using our laptop example, if Firm B decides to sell its laptop for $1,000 (assuming all other factors remain constant), the consumer surplus would be $200 ($1,200 – $1,000). This means that the consumer captures $200 worth of value from the transaction.

Producer Surplus, or Profit: This is the difference between the price charged (P) and the cost to produce (C), also known simply as profit. In the laptop example, if Firm B sells the laptop for $1,000, their profit would be $600 ($1,000 – $400).

Economic value creation is, therefore, the sum of consumer surplus and producer surplus. In our example, economic value creation would be $800 ($200 + $600), indicating that the total value created by Firm B’s laptop offering is $800, which is shared between the consumer and the firm.

Competitive Advantage and Economic Value Created: Strategies Unveiled

Competitive advantage arises when a firm achieves the largest economic value created. This means maximizing the difference between the consumer’s willingness to pay (V) and the cost to produce (C). Returning to our laptop example, Firm B’s competitive advantage of $200 per laptop sold gives them two distinct strategic options:

  • They can choose to charge a higher price, reflecting the higher value their product offers, thereby increasing their profitability.
  • Alternatively, they can maintain a competitive price, matching that of Firm A, and use their advantage to gain market share.
  • The strategic objective, therefore, is to maximize economic value creation (V – C), as this directly impacts the firm’s financial performance and market position.

Maximizing Economic Value Creation: Strategies and Examples

To maximize economic value creation, firms should focus on two key aspects: creating economic value and capturing a significant portion of it. This can be achieved through various strategies, and understanding the approaches taken by successful companies can provide valuable insights.

Creating and Capturing Value: Apple’s Innovation Advantage

Apple, a technology giant, provides a prime example of maximizing economic value creation through innovation. When Apple introduced the Apple Watch in 2015, it retailed for $349. An analysis by an independent engineering team estimated Apple’s total cost for materials and labor to be no more than $84 per watch. This meant that Apple captured a significant portion of the value created, with a profit of approximately $265 per watch and a remarkable profit margin of 315%. This example showcases how creating highly innovative products can lead to substantial economic value creation and profit.

Capturing Value vs. Capturing Customers: Amazon’s Long-Term Vision

Amazon, on the other hand, demonstrates a different approach. The online retail giant has been creating immense value for its customers, particularly with its Prime membership program and its acquisition of Whole Foods. However, Amazon has chosen to capture only a small portion of this value, often operating with thin profit margins or even negative net income.

This is because Amazon prioritizes long-term growth and market dominance over short-term profitability. By focusing on building a vast customer base and leveraging network effects, Amazon aims to lock out competing retail platforms. This strategy has been supported by investors, reflected in Amazon’s market capitalization of nearly $2 trillion in 2021.

Limitations and Challenges: Navigating Complexities

While the concept of economic value creation is powerful, it does have certain limitations and challenges.

Determining Consumer Value: Ascribing a value to a good or service in the eyes of consumers is not a straightforward task. Consumer value can vary based on factors such as income, preferences, and time. A business-class air travel ticket may hold more value for an individual with a higher income, while a concert ticket for a specific artist may be valued higher by a fan.

Measuring Firm-Level Competitive Advantage: To measure competitive advantage at the firm level, we need to estimate economic value creation for all products and services offered. This can be complex for diversified firms operating in multiple industries and offering a wide range of products.


Economic value creation is a critical concept in strategic management, providing a compass for firms to navigate their way towards a competitive advantage. By understanding the dynamics of value, cost, and price, organizations can make informed decisions about pricing, resource allocation, and market positioning. Maximizing economic value creation can lead to enhanced profitability or market share gains, setting the foundation for long-term success.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q: How does economic value creation relate to competitive advantage?

A: Economic value creation is the very foundation of competitive advantage. When a firm creates more economic value than its rivals, it gains an edge in the market. This advantage can be quantified and provides strategic options for pricing and market positioning.

Q: What are the key components of economic value creation?

A: The trifecta of economic value creation consists of value (V), cost (C), and price (P). Value represents the consumer’s willingness to pay, cost refers to the firm’s total unit cost, and price is the amount charged for the product or service.

Q: Can you explain the relationship between economic value creation and firm financial performance?

A: Economic value creation directly impacts firm financial performance. It influences both revenues and profit margins. By maximizing economic value creation, firms can either increase their profitability or gain market share, both of which contribute to improved financial performance.

Q: How can firms maximize their economic value creation?

A: Firms should focus on two key aspects: creating economic value and capturing a significant portion of it. This can be achieved through innovation, differentiation, cost-efficiency, and strategic pricing. Firms should aim to provide products or services that offer superior value to consumers while also capturing a fair share of that value through pricing strategies.

Q: What are the limitations of economic value creation as a concept?

A: One limitation is the challenge of determining consumer value, as it can vary widely based on individual factors and change over time. Additionally, measuring firm-level competitive advantage, especially for diversified firms with multiple product lines, can be complex and may require more nuanced analysis.

Q: How does economic value creation contribute to long-term business success?

A: By maximizing economic value creation, firms set themselves up for long-term success. They can either enhance their profitability, strengthening their financial position, or gain market share, which leads to increased scale and market power. This, in turn, can create a positive feedback loop, further solidifying their competitive advantage.



Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here