Economic Intelligence: définition et applications


Possessing a strong understanding of the market, customers, and competitors is essential for any organization’s success. This is where Economic Intelligence (EI) comes into play. EI is a powerful tool that enables businesses to make informed decisions, adapt to changing market dynamics, and gain a decisive edge over their rivals.

In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the definition, history, components, and real-world applications of EI, highlighting its importance and providing practical examples of its effective utilization.

Understanding Economic Intelligence: Definition and Evolution

At its core, Economic Intelligence can be understood as a triad of interconnected activities:

  1. Information Gathering (Veille): This involves the systematic collection of pertinent strategic information. It entails identifying, acquiring, and aggregating data from a variety of sources, both internal and external to the organization.
  2. Information Protection: Guarding sensitive data is a critical aspect of EI. This includes establishing robust security measures to safeguard an organization’s intellectual property, trade secrets, and confidential information.
  3. Influence: Beyond merely collecting and protecting information, EI encompasses the dissemination of information or the propagation of norms that align with an organization’s strategic objectives. This can involve shaping public opinion, influencing policy decisions, or establishing thought leadership.

The concept of EI has evolved over time, building upon early definitions and interpretations. One of the earliest mentions of the term can be attributed to Harold Wilensky in 1967. However, the field truly gained prominence in the 1990s, with the publication of the “Martre Report” by a commission led by Henri Martre in 1993. This report offered a more comprehensive definition, describing EI as:

“The coordinated actions of research, processing, and distribution of useful information for economic actors, with a focus on legality, information protection, and improving the company’s competitive position.”

The Martre Report emphasized the importance of ethical and legal frameworks, as well as the timely and cost-effective gathering and distribution of information within organizations.

Unpacking the Components and Functions

Several renowned scholars and practitioners have contributed to our understanding of EI by identifying its key components and functions. Here are some of the most notable interpretations:

  • Claude Revel’s Three-Pronged Approach: Revel identifies three critical aspects of EI: information/knowledge management, protection, and influence. She underscores the importance of adaptability, emphasizing that organizations must not only respond to their external environment but also strive to influence it ethically.
  • Bernard Besson and Jean-Claude Possin’s Functional Framework: Besson and Possin distinguish four key functions of EI:
  • Networking: Building and maintaining relationships, both internally within the organization and externally with stakeholders, partners, and competitors.
  • Memory: The ability to store and retrieve information efficiently, often leveraging advanced data storage technologies.
  • Mastery: Ethical leadership and the ability to make sense of complex information, separating signal from noise.
  • Analysis: Validating the accuracy and reliability of information from multiple sources to ensure its usefulness.
  • Jean-Louis Levet and Robert Paturel’s Knowledge-Centric View: Levet and Paturel’s interpretation focuses on four key functions:
  • Mastering Scientific Knowledge and Know-how: They emphasize the importance of technical expertise and the ability to leverage specialized knowledge for competitive advantage.
  • Opportunity and Threat Detection: Identifying and assessing external opportunities and potential risks to the organization.
  • Strategy Coordination: Ensuring that EI efforts are aligned with the organization’s strategic goals and objectives.
  • Influence Practices: Propagating information and norms that favor the organization’s strategy and shape the external environment.

A Dynamic Process: From Information Gathering to Implementation

EI is a dynamic and iterative process that begins with information gathering and culminates in the implementation of strategies informed by that intelligence. Here’s an overview of the key steps:

  • Information Gathering: This can be done through passive means, such as monitoring publicly available data (veille), or active means (renseignement), which involves more direct methods like human relations and open-source intelligence.
  • Discernment and Validation: The vast amount of information available today necessitates discernment and intuition. EI practitioners must validate information from multiple sources, ensuring accuracy and adhering to ethical and legal regulations.
  • Analysis and Strategic Planning: Analyzing validated information helps identify patterns, trends, and insights. Tools like the FFOM/SWOT matrix are employed to guide strategic planning, including decisions related to information system security.
  • Implementation and Evaluation: This phase involves putting EI insights into action. It includes animating networks, evaluating the effects of EI initiatives, and mutualizing practices—sharing successful strategies and learnings across the organization.

Country Approaches: France, the US, and Japan

Different countries have adopted unique approaches to EI, reflecting their cultural, economic, and historical contexts. Here, we explore three notable examples:

  • France: France introduced EI in the 1990s, and it quickly became a key focus for the government and businesses. The French approach emphasizes growth, employment, competitiveness, and business security. The country has established professional organizations like the Federation of Economic Intelligence Professionals and the French Economic Intelligence Syndicate (Synfie) to promote ethical practices and provide support to EI professionals.
  • The United States: The US has a long history of practicing EI, dating back to World War II. There is a more integrated approach between the military and civilian sectors, and a strong emphasis is placed on advocacy and support for businesses. US companies often have dedicated teams or departments focused on EI, and the country has a well-developed ecosystem of EI service providers.
  • Japan: Japan implemented a collaborative model of “strategic knowledge communities,” bringing together businesses, academia, and government entities to share information and insights. Japan’s EI policy dates back to the 1970s, and the country is known for its focus on long-term strategic planning and the utilization of EI for international market expansion.

Ethical Considerations and Professional Organization

EI is a field that requires strict ethical guidelines and professional organization. Entities like the Federation of Economic Intelligence Professionals and Synfie have established codes of ethics to ensure that EI practices are conducted legally and responsibly. Additionally, associations such as the Lyon Association for Economic and Social Ethics and the French Association for the Development of Economic Intelligence contribute to the ethical framework of the profession.

Strategic Intelligence (Veille stratégique): A Key Aspect of EI

Veille stratégique, or strategic intelligence, is a critical component of EI. It involves collecting and processing commercial information to derive insights that inform profitable business decisions. This process includes data collection, analysis, and presentation, leveraging advanced technological tools to gain actionable insights. Here are some key aspects and benefits of Veille stratégique:

Examples of Veille Stratégique in Practice:

A restaurant owner wanting to understand customer preferences might use strategic intelligence software to survey customers about their cuisine preferences. The data is then analyzed to make informed decisions about the menu and overall business strategy.

An organization conducting an employee satisfaction survey to evaluate immediate supervisors can use Veille stratégique to gather and analyze data, leading to improvements in work culture and, ultimately, productivity.

Trends in Strategic Intelligence:

  • Increased Investment in AI Technology: Organizations are increasingly leveraging artificial intelligence to automate data collection and analysis, improving efficiency and speed.
  • The Rise of Big Data: Veille stratégique has become essential in making sense of vast datasets, helping organizations identify patterns and trends.
  • Focus on Data Governance and Compliance: With regulations like GDPR, organizations must ensure that data collection and handling adhere to strict standards.
  • Self-Service Strategic Intelligence: User-friendly software and tools are empowering non-technical users to conduct their own strategic intelligence initiatives.
  • Data Storytelling and Visualization: Interpreting data through compelling narratives and visualizations is becoming an essential skill for EI practitioners.

Benefits of Veille Stratégique in Organizations:

  • Quick Access to Accurate Information: Veille stratégique provides timely and accurate data, enabling productive and efficient decision-making.
  • Comprehensive Market Understanding: It allows organizations to collect, analyze, and interpret data about the market, customers, and competitors, leading to well-informed strategies.
  • Evidence-Based Decision-Making: By relying on data and insights, organizations reduce their dependence on assumptions and instincts, resulting in more effective choices.

Methods of Data Collection for Strategic Intelligence

EI practitioners employ a range of methods to gather data for strategic intelligence:

  • Online Surveys: Cost-effective and widely reachable, online surveys allow for real-time data collection and analysis. They are particularly useful for customer-facing initiatives.
  • In-Person Interviews: Face-to-face interviews facilitate precise information gathering through direct communication and the observation of non-verbal cues.
  • Mail Surveys: Although traditional mail surveys have lost some popularity due to technological advancements, they can still be useful for specific target audiences.
  • Telephone Surveys: More costly than online surveys, telephone surveys are useful for connecting with respondents who may not be comfortable with digital methods.
  • Questionnaires, Polls, and Forms:
  • Questionnaires: A set of qualitative or quantitative questions used for in-depth research.
  • Polls: Single-question approaches that are quick and easy for respondents.
  • Forms: Used to collect specific information, often employing a mix of open-ended and closed-ended questions.

Analysis, Reporting, and Presentation

Strategic intelligence software plays a pivotal role in analyzing large datasets, helping organizations interpret customer opinions and identify areas for improvement. Visual representations, such as infographics and dashboards, aid in communicating complex data insights to stakeholders.

Advantages of Strategic Intelligence in Organizations

The effective utilization of EI and Veille stratégique offers a multitude of advantages for organizations:

  • Improved Productivity: By providing data-driven insights, EI enables organizations to make informed decisions, streamline processes, and enhance overall productivity.
  • Complex Process Streamlining: Advanced automated analysis simplifies intricate processes, saving time and resources.
  • Compliance and Transparency: EI facilitates compliance with data regulations, improving transparency and reducing legal risks.
  • Enhanced Efficiency: EI empowers organizations to allocate resources efficiently, improving customer service, marketing campaign measurements, and overall operational effectiveness.

The Bottom Line: Why Economic Intelligence Matters

Economic Intelligence is a potent force that empowers organizations to navigate the complex business landscape. Here’s why it matters:

  • Competitive Advantage: EI provides a deeper understanding of customers, market trends, and buyer behavior, giving organizations an edge over their competitors.
  • Informed Goal Setting: By analyzing trends and customer needs, EI enables organizations to set realistic and achievable sales and marketing goals.
  • Anticipating Buyer Behavior: EI helps organizations anticipate buyer behavior and market trends, resulting in more effective sales, marketing, and growth strategies.


Economic Intelligence is a dynamic and essential field that empowers organizations to make data-driven decisions and adapt to changing market conditions. By systematically gathering, analyzing, and acting upon strategic information, businesses can gain a competitive edge, identify new opportunities, and enhance their overall performance. As the business world becomes increasingly complex and fast-paced, EI will continue to play a pivotal role in driving organizational success and sustainability.


Question: What are the key benefits of Economic Intelligence for organizations?

Answer: EI offers organizations a competitive advantage by providing a deeper understanding of customers, market trends, and competitor activities. It enables data-driven decision-making, improves efficiency, and helps identify new opportunities for growth and expansion.

Question: How does Veille stratégique contribute to the success of a business?

Answer: Veille stratégique, or strategic intelligence, ensures that businesses have quick access to accurate and actionable information. By collecting and analyzing data, organizations can make informed decisions about their products, services, and strategies, ultimately improving their competitiveness and responsiveness to market changes.

Question: What are some ethical considerations in Economic Intelligence?

Answer: Ethical considerations are crucial in EI to ensure that information is gathered and used responsibly. This includes adhering to legal frameworks, respecting privacy, and maintaining transparency. Professional organizations, such as the Federation of Economic Intelligence Professionals, have established codes of ethics to guide practitioners and promote ethical conduct.

Question: How has the concept of Economic Intelligence evolved over time?

Answer: The field of EI has evolved significantly since its early definitions. Initially focused on information gathering and distribution, EI has expanded to encompass a broader range of activities, including information protection and influence. The Martre Report in the 1990s was a pivotal moment in the evolution of EI, emphasizing the importance of legality, ethics, and the timely dissemination of information within organizations.

Question: What are some real-world examples of Economic Intelligence in practice?

Answer: EI is utilized by organizations across various industries. For example, a tech startup might use EI to identify emerging trends in consumer technology, influencing their product development. A retail company might employ EI to analyze customer behavior and preferences, shaping their marketing strategies. EI is also used in international trade, helping businesses understand cultural nuances and local market dynamics when expanding globally.



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